24 Feb. 1909 Baku, Azerbeidschan 27 Aug. 1988 Ithaca, USA
Philosoph, Professor of Philosophy an der Cornell University Rezension: Critical Thinking
|"A critic who practices his profession effectively is able to give reasons for his favorable or adverse judgements" (S. 7).|
|"The logician is a connoisseur of generality, an admirer of the universal formula, an enemy of the exceptional case" (S. 9).|
|"Intelligent criticism of any utterance should begin with understanding of the motives and purposes of the speaker" (S. 177).|
|"We can hardly hope to rid ourselves of all our prejudices; we can however, be alert to detect them" (S. 265).|
|"Propositions believed as self-evident are thought to require no evidence" ... "Appeal to self-evidence is one of the weakest of all ways of grounding basic beliefs" (S. 267).|
|"In order to understand a problem we must understand, at least in outline and in general terms, the kind of answer that would be a solution" (S. 274).|
|"Men alive today are not noticeably more gifted in intelligence, moral insight, or artistic imagination, than the Athenians. Yet hardly more than a hundred years of intense scientific activity has given modern man almost godlike powers to remake the very stuff of the universe itself" (S. 334).|
|"Scientific observation, we have seen, is an active process, in which the observer interrogates nature. The difficulty in psychology or economics or other young sciences is to know what questions to ask" (S. 369-370).|
|Alle Zitate aus:
Max Black: Critical Thinking. An Introduction to Logic and Scientific
Method. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1953. 2.
14. September 1930 Indianapolis 7. Oktober 1992 Chicago; US-amerikanischer Philosoph Wikipedia
|Philosophy is a subversive
"... reason accepts no authority above itself and is necessarily subversive"
The Closing of the American Mind, 1987, S. 258
30. Januar 1846 Clapham, England 18. September 1924 Oxford Stanford Enzy Wikipedia
|Metaphysics is the finding
of bad reasons for what we believe on instinct.
F.H. Bradley: Appearance and Reality (1893)
| John Locke
29.8. 1632 Wrington, Somerset 28.10. 1704 Oates, Essex
|He that believes, without
having any Reason for believing, may be in love with his own Fancies; but
neither seeks Truth as he ought, nor pays the Obedience due to his Maker, who
would have him use those discerning Faculties he has given him, to keep him out
of Mistake and Error. He that does not this to the best of his power, however
he sometimes lights on Truth, is in the right but by chance: and I know not
whether the luckiness of the Accident, will excuse the irregularity of his
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Book 4 Of Knowledge and Opinion, Chapter 17 Of Reason
|I find every sect, as far as reason will help
them, make use of it gladly: and where it fails them, they cry out, It is
matter of faith, and above reason.
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, II. Ch. 18, Of Faith and Reasan and Other Distinct Provinces, S. 281
man who was pretty well satisfied of the meaning of a text of Scripture, or
clause in the code, at first reading, has, by consulting commentators, quite
lost the sense of it, and by these elucidations given rise or increase to his
doubts, and drawn obscurity upon the place. I say not this that I think
commentaries needless; but to show how uncertain the names of mixed modes
naturally are, even in the mouths of those who had both the intention and the
faculty of speaking as clearly as language was capable to express their
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding III.) Of Words, 9. Of the Imperfection of Words
|Charles S. Peirce
10. September 1839 Cambridge, Mass. 19. April 1914 Milford, Penn.; US- Mathematiker, Philosoph und Logiker
|Few persons care to study
logic, because everybody conceives himself to be proficient enough in the art
of reasoning already. But I observe that this satisfaction is limited to one's
own ratiocination, and does not extend to that of other men.
... each chief step in science has been a lesson in logic.
We are, doubtless, in the main logical animals, but we are not perfectly so.
The Assassins, or followers of the Old Man of the Mountain, used to rush into death at his least command, because they believed that obedience to him would insure everlasting felicity. Had they doubted this, they would not have acted as they did.
Vergleiche: Literatur zu Antisemitismus & Christentum, Inquisition, Kreuzzüge, Terror und Religion
Doubt is an uneasy and dissatisfied state from which we struggle to free ourselves and pass into the state of belief; while the latter is a calm and satisfactory state which we do not wish to avoid, or to change to a belief in anything else. On the contrary, we cling tenaciously, not merely to believing, but to believing just what we do believe.
Still oftener, the instinctive dislike of an undecided state of mind, exaggerated into a vague dread of doubt, makes men cling spasmodically to the views they already take.
Thus, if it be true that death is annihilation, then the man who believes that he will certainly go straight to heaven when he dies, provided he have fulfilled certain simple observances in this life, has a cheap pleasure which will not be followed by the least disappointment.
|Let the will of the state act, then, instead of that of the individual. Let an institution be created which shall have for its object to keep correct doctrines before the attention of the people, to reiterate them perpetually, and to teach them to the young; having at the same time power to prevent contrary doctrines from being taught, advocated, or expressed. Let all possible causes of a change of mind be removed from men's apprehensions. Let them be kept ignorant, lest they should learn of some reason to think otherwise than they do. Let their passions be enlisted, so that they may regard private and unusual opinions with hatred and horror. Then, let all men who reject the established belief be terrified into silence. Let the people turn out and tar-and-feather such men, or let inquisitions be made into the manner of thinking of suspected persons, and when they are found guilty of forbidden beliefs, let them be subjected to some signal punishment. When complete agreement could not otherwise be reached, a general massacre of all who have not thought in a certain way has proved a very effective means of settling opinion in a country. [...] This method has, from the earliest times, been one of the chief means of upholding correct theological and political doctrines, and of preserving their universal or catholic character. In Rome, especially, it has been practised from the days of Numa Pompilius to those of Pius Nonus. This is the most perfect example in history; but wherever there is a priesthood -- and no religion has been without one -- this method has been more or less made use of.|
|For the mass of mankind,
then, there is perhaps no better method than this. If it is their highest
impulse to be intellectual slaves, then slaves they ought to
Alle obigen Zitate aus: "The Fixation of Belief". Popular Science Monthly 12, 1877. S. 1-15. Online
1850 1943; Bruder des bekannten Philosophen Henry Sidgwick
Bekannt durch seine philosophischen und logischen Werke: 1884 Fallacies. A view of logic from the practical side. New York 1892 Distinction 1901 The Use of Words in Argument. London
|"It is open to any lunatic to know
by intuition that he is the Angel Gabriel, just as it was formerly open to
common sense to know that the Sun went round the earth or to feel that the
Antipodes were a plain absurdity."
Zitiert nach Max Black: Critical Thinking. Englewood Cliffs 1953. 2. Aufl. S. 249; Rezension